Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology 2020-12-21T00:00:00-07:00 CJLT Managing Editor Open Journal Systems <p>The <em>Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology</em> (CJLT) is a peer-reviewed journal that welcomes papers on all aspects of educational technology and learning. Topics may include: learning theory and technology, cognition and technology, instructional design theory and application, online learning, computer applications in education, simulations and gaming, and other aspects of the use of technology in the learning process. Manuscripts may be submitted either in English or in French. CJLT is available free-of-charge to anyone with access to the Internet, and there are no artcle submission or access charges for publication. CJLT is indexed in Scopus, Web of Science (ESCI), ERIC, DOAJ, Ulrichs, Google Scholar, EBSCO, and others.</p> Editorial Volume 46 Issue 2 2020-12-17T09:48:22-07:00 Sawsen Lakhal Martha Cleveland-Innes 2020-12-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Sawsen Lakhal, Martha Cleveland-Inness Book Review of Assessment Strategies for Online Learning: Engagement and Authenticity, 2018 2020-11-25T14:20:38-07:00 Michael Dabrowski <p>Book Review by Michael Dabrowski</p> <p><strong>Assessment strategies for online learning: Engagement and Authenticity, 2018.</strong> By Dianne Conrad and Jason Openo, Athabasca University Press 220 pages. doi:10.15215/aupress/9781771992329.01</p> 2020-12-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Michael Dabrowski Editorial 2020-08-19T12:19:01-06:00 Martha Cleveland-Innes Sawsen Lakhal 2020-09-11T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Martha Cleveland-Innes, Sawsen Lakhal Education's Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic Reveals Online Education’s Three Enduring Challenges 2020-08-05T09:53:10-06:00 Jason Openo <p>Closed campuses, working remotely, and physical distancing have changed the way we work, teach, learn, shop, attend conferences, and interact with family and friends. But the Covid-19 pandemic has not changed what we know about creating high-end online education. Two decades of research has shown that online education often fails to fulfill its promise, and the emergency shift to remote instruction has, for many, justified their distrust and dislike of online learning. Low interactivity remains a widely recognized short-coming of current online offerings. Low interactivity results, in part, from many faculty not feeling comfortable being themselves online. The long-advocated for era of authentic assessments is needed now more than ever. Finally, greater support is needed for both underrepresented students and for faculty to move beyond basic online instruction to create a strong continuum of care between the teaching and learning environment and the student support infrastructure. For those who have been long-term champions of online education, it has never been more important to confront the three biggest challenges that continue to haunt online education – interactivity, authenticity, and support. Only by confronting these challenges squarely can instructors, educational developers, and their institutions take huge steps towards better online instruction in the midst of a pandemic and make widespread, high-quality online education permanently part of the “new normal.”</p> 2020-12-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jason Openo Institutional Perspectives on Faculty Development for Digital Education in Canada 2020-10-20T14:59:26-06:00 Charlene A. VanLeeuwen George Veletsianos Olga Belikov Nicole Johnson <p>As digital education at the post-secondary level continues to grow, robust professional development that prepares faculty to teach in online and blended settings is necessary. In this study we analyze open-ended comments from the Canadian Digital Learning Research Association’s annual survey of Canadian post-secondary institutions (2017-2019) to deepen our understanding of faculty training and support for digital education as articulated by higher education institutions. We find that 1) digital education orientation or on-boarding processes for faculty vary widely; 2) institutions employ an extensive array of professional development practices for digital education; 3) institutions report culture change, work security, and unclear expectations as challenges in providing digital education training and support; and 4) institutions articulate aspirations and hopes around professional development investments in order to build digital education capacity. These findings have significant implications for research and practice and we describe these in the article.</p> 2020-12-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Charlene A. VanLeeuwen, George Veletsianos, Olga Belikov, Nicole Johnson Teaching, learning, literacy in our high-risk high-tech world: A framework for becoming human, 2017. By J. P. Gee. Teachers College Press. 184 pages. ISBN 978-0-8077-5860-1 2020-07-30T09:33:50-06:00 Helen J. DeWaard <p>In this book Gee draws on years of study in literacy, learning, and gaming culture to reconceptualize a future for education that confronts current global issues of peace, sustainability, and the battle for human dignity. Gee takes a deeper dive into how human development impacts teaching, learning, and literacy in today’s complex, tech infused world. This book offers insights in light of current global pandemic contexts. Gee suggests that teaching, learning, literacy, and the use of technology should start from a place of goodwill, while acknowledging that education spans within, across, and beyond the boundaries of home and/or school-based contexts.</p> 2020-09-11T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Helen J. DeWaard Open Educational Resources in Canada 2020 2020-07-30T11:13:06-06:00 Rory McGreal <p class="PreformattedText"><span lang="EN-CA" style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman';">COVID 19 has had a wide impact on education internationally and specifically in Canada, with nearly all institutions now transitioning to online education, with many learning for the first time about Open Educational Resources (OER). Understanding what is happening with OER in the different regions of our country is one step in creating awareness and promoting national networks for sharing resources, serving to address local educational needs. Educators can assemble, adopt, adapt, design, and develop OER-based courses that can cost-effectively address the needs of Canadian students. This paper describes OER-related initiatives and implementations across Canada that can serve as examples to educators and administrators, who because of COVID 19, are offering online courses for the first time.</span></p> <p class="PreformattedText" style="text-align: justify; text-indent: 35.45pt; line-height: 200%;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;"> </span></p> 2020-09-11T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Rory McGreal Oral Production Skills and Self-Regulation Processes: Exploring the contribution of the e-portfolio 2020-11-19T17:07:43-07:00 Maxime Paquet Thierry Karsenti <p>This article presents the results of an exploratory study that describes and analyzes the contribution of the e-portfolio in the use of the self-regulation process. The sample used was of female grade 9 high school students during oral production tasks. A content analysis of student self-assessment and individual interviews, as well as data from questionnaires suggest that the use of the portfolio, because it includes reflective activities, supports high school students by allowing them to verbalize the strategies used to determine their effectiveness. In addition, the portfolio contains pertinent information for strategic planning in subsequent oral production tasks.</p> 2020-12-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Maxime Paquet, Thierry Karsenti Editorial 2020-04-28T12:04:52-06:00 Martha Cleveland-Innes Sawsen Lakhal 2020-04-22T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Martha Cleveland-Innes, Sawsen Lakhal Defining the Visual Complexity of Learning Management Systems Using Image Metrics and Subjective Ratings 2020-08-02T13:58:23-06:00 Brenda M. Stoesz Mehdi Niknam Jessica Sutton <p>Research has demonstrated that students’ learning outcomes and motivation to learn are influenced by the visual design of learning technologies (e.g., learning management systems or LMS). One aspect of LMS design that has not been thoroughly investigated is visual complexity. In two experiments, postsecondary students rated the visual complexity of images of LMS after exposure durations of 50-500 ms. Perceptions of complexity were positively correlated across timed conditions and working memory capacity was associated with complexity ratings. Low-level image metrics were also found to predict perceptions of the LMS complexity. Results demonstrate the importance of the visual complexity of learning technologies and suggest that additional research on the impact of LMS design on learning outcomes is warranted.</p> 2020-12-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Brenda M. Stoesz, Jessica Sutton, Mehdi Niknam Online Learning: Practices, Perceptions, and Technology 2020-07-30T14:46:59-06:00 Tess Miller Kendra MacLaren Han Xu <p>The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing online learning given its rapid growth combined with the necessity to reduce attrition in online classes by providing quality instruction. This study was contextualized using the three elements of the community of inquiry (CoI) framework. We surveyed 93 students currently registered in online classes about their online learning experiences, perceptions, technological delivery of their course. Findings revealed that the majority of online courses were asynchronous using Moodle. There was a statistically significant difference between the three CoI dimensions and level of education where graduate students had more favourable online learning experience as measured by the CoI survey.</p> 2020-09-11T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Tess Miller, Han Xu, Kendra MacLaren The Effects of One-to-One Laptop Program on Help-Seeking and Homework Completion 2020-07-21T14:19:33-06:00 Jérémie Bisaillon Stéphane Villeneuve Alain Stockless <p>Many students prefer to abandon rather than seek help during their homework. However, seeking support is recognized as an effective learning strategy to complete assignments. Technology-supported classroom could have a beneficial impact on this strategy and, therefore, on homework completion. This article aims to compare students from a one-to-one laptop program to others studying in a traditional classroom environment on their 1) help-seeking strategies and 2) homework completion frequency. Quantitative analyses tend to confirm the initial hypothesis. However, they reveal the necessity to sensitize students regarding the appropriate use of technological tools to ensure their beneficial impact on learning.</p> 2020-12-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jérémie Bisaillon, Stéphane Villeneuve, Alain Stockless Does the Association of Social Media Use with Problematic Internet Behaviours Predict Undergraduate Students Academic Procrastination? 2020-07-30T14:46:12-06:00 Kingsley Chinaza Nwosu O. I. Ikwuka Onyinyechi Mary Ugorji Gabriel Chidi Unachukwu <p>Researchers are of the view that students’ attachment to social media may lead to negative consequences such as postponement of their academic work. Yet how social media use is associated with academic procrastination of students is still underexplored. This study ascertained the pathways through which social media use predicted academic procrastination of undergraduate students. The sample size comprised 500 year one students of the Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Path analysis was employed to test the model fit of the hypothetical model and show the direction of relationships between the exogenous and endogenous variables. Results showed that the hypothesized model fits the sample data satisfactorily, and Internet addiction predicted academic procrastination more than any other variable. Social media use had no significant effect on academic procrastination but indirectly significantly predicted academic procrastination through internet addiction.</p> 2020-09-11T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Kingsley Chinaza Nwosu, O. I. Ikwuka, Onyinyechi Mary Ugorji, Gabriel Chidi Unachukwu Foreign Language Exposure in Knowledge-Building Forums Using English as a Foreign Language 2020-07-30T14:38:35-06:00 Marni Manegre <p>This study examines whether the students with higher levels of language and cultural awareness relating to the L2 share this knowledge with their peers in collaborative writing tasks when participating in the Knowledge Building International Project (KBIP). The study was conducted in two Spanish classrooms, where the participants were bilingual in both Catalan and Spanish.&nbsp; A pre-questionnaire was used to determine the level of exposure to English language and English culture and the students were scored on their responses and then divided into three groups: low-, medium-, and high-level exposure to English. A one-way ANOVA was used to determine whether exposure to English language and culture outside of the classroom would influence pre-test scores. There is an interaction effect between language and cultural exposure and the pre-test scores (F = 5.17).&nbsp; Upon the conclusion of the collaborative writing task, a one-way ANOVA was used to determine whether there was an interaction effect between language and cultural exposure and the post-test scores (F = 4.47). The student scores increased at the same rate across the groups.&nbsp; This indicates that the students did not share their knowledge of the English language and culture with their peers in this online writing task.</p> 2020-12-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Marni Manegre An Analysis of Discipline and Personality in Blended Environments 2020-07-30T14:45:20-06:00 Chan Chang Tik <p>The purpose of the study is to investigate the interaction between discipline and personality in a blended classroom using the community of inquiry model. To this end, a factorial ANOVA is used to determine the main effects of the high and low of each personality trait as well as the four different clusters of discipline on the presences. The study used a non-experimental design to gather data. A total of 12 lecturers and 408 students from three institutions were involved. The results indicate that there is a significant difference in teaching presence between the hard-applied and hard-pure as well as the hard-applied and soft-pure disciplines only for the conscientiousness personality. Correspondingly, there is a significant difference in social presence between the hard-applied and soft-pure disciplines across all the five personality traits. However, there is no significant difference in cognitive presence for all the discipline clusters across all the personality traits.</p> 2020-09-11T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Chan Chang Tik Use of Learning Objects for Computer Programming-Based Problem Solving 2020-08-02T14:47:34-06:00 Abdullah Ahmad Basuhail <p>This paper presents an approach to implement learning objects for teaching and learning problem-solving techniques based on computer programming. The demonstrated approach exploits computer-based interactive animations and computer graphics. The main feature of this approach is its simplicity for exploring the concepts and structures of the programming that are used to implement a solution for a problem under consideration. The developed learning objects feature the possibility of reusability and adaptability in e-learning settings. Moreover, the learning objects can be utilized as a hands-on experience for the learners of a certain subject matter. The approach applied for the design and implementation of the learning objects for computer programming-based problem solving can be extended to other disciplines of science and technology. As a demonstration of the proposed methodology, we showed an application that utilizes the approach to implement a learning object for solving a well-known statistics and probability problem.</p> 2020-09-11T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Abdullah Ahmad Basuhail Open Educational Practices Advocacy: The Instructional Designer Experience 2020-04-28T12:03:30-06:00 Michelle Harrison Irwin DeVries <p>Instructional designers are in a unique position to provide leadership and support for advancement of new technologies and practices. There is a paucity of research on current and potential roles of Instructional designers in incorporating and advocating for open educational practices at their higher education institutions. Against the background of emerging open educational practices, a survey and interviews were conducted with instructional design professionals to establish, from their experience and practice, their roles and potential for advocacy for open educational practices (OEP) including open educational resources (OER). Among the results of the analysis, it was found that while instructional designers have a strong awareness of and desire to advocate for OEP in their institutions, their ability to move forward was limited by perceived barriers such as lack of relevant mandates and professional workload recognition, policy development and funding, awareness and leadership support. In addition, there were gaps identified between what they most valued about OEP, such as implementing innovative pedagogies, and what they could actually initiate and advocate for in practice (adopt and support OER). They pointed to a lack of formal learning opportunities around OEP and expressed that their main sources of learning and support were of an informal nature, acquired through their networks and collaborations with peers.</p> 2020-04-06T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Irwin DeVries, Michelle Harriason At the Edge of the Internet: Teaching Coding and Sustainability to Himalayan Girls 2020-04-28T12:02:20-06:00 Frances Garrett Matt Price Laila Strazds Dawn Walker <p>This report introduces a two-week workshop on web coding and environmental sustainability at a school for girls in northeastern India. Our discussion of this teaching project reviews issues that shaped the project’s development, outlines resources required for implementation, and summarizes the workshop’s curriculum. Highspeed internet will soon arrive in the region of this recently-recognized UNESCO World Heritage Site. We believe that the training of girls in particular could help redistribute power and resources in regions where women are often poorer, less educated, and excluded from decision-making in institutional and public contexts. Relatively few code teaching projects have grappled with the difficulty of working in offline environments at the “edge of the internet,” and yet moving skills and knowledge into these regions before the internet arrives in full force might help mitigate some of the web’s worst impacts on equity and justice.</p> 2020-04-06T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Frances Garrett Design of a Private Online Course on Hybrid Training for College Teaching Staff Based on the Universal Concept of Learning: Case Study and Practical Considerations 2020-07-28T20:41:01-06:00 Nathalie Marceau Sawsen Lakhal Aude Séguin <p>Universal design for learning is used to design face-to-face and online courses, from elementary to graduate studies (Bergeron, Rousseau and Leclerc, 2011; Tremblay and Loiselle, 2016). However, the continuing education of the teaching staff of Quebec college education (teachers and pedagogical advisers) has received little attention from this perspective. This case study presents the approach and practical considerations adopted when designing a private online course on hybrid training for college teaching staff. The operationalization of the guiding principles of the universal design for learning is presented in connection with the anticipated professional clientele for this SPOC while taking into account the project’s constraints.</p> 2020-03-11T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nathalie Marceau Computational Thinking in Classrooms: A Study of a Professional Development for STEM Teachers in High Needs Schools 2020-07-28T20:47:39-06:00 Qing Li Laila Richman Sarah Haines Scot McNary <p>This study explores the influence of a professional development (PD) model aiming to build teacher capacities for K-12 schools. It examines the impact of this PD on teachers’ learning of content and pedagogical knowledge related to computational thinking. It also investigates the lessons learned during the implementation process.</p> <p>This mixed-methods study examined 25 teachers who participated in the PD. The pre- and post-tests analysis showed positive outcomes of this PD in helping teachers learn CT skills. The thematic analysis of the qualitative data identified themes to answer the second, third and fourth research questions. Learner-centered approaches, differentiated learning, and unplugged activities were three main themes identified in teacher-created lesson plans.</p> 2020-04-06T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Qing Li, Laila Richman, Sarah Haines, Scot McNary