Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology 2021-05-28T13:32:46-06:00 CJLT Managing Editor Open Journal Systems <p>The <em>Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology</em> (CJLT) is a peer-reviewed journal that welcomes papers on all aspects of educational technology and learning. Topics may include: learning theory and technology, cognition and technology, instructional design theory and application, online learning, computer applications in education, simulations and gaming, and other aspects of the use of technology in the learning process. Manuscripts may be submitted either in English or in French. CJLT is available free-of-charge to anyone with access to the Internet, and there are no artcle submission or access charges for publication.</p> <p>CJLT is indexed in Scopus, Web of Science (ESCI), ERIC, DOAJ, Ulrichs, Google Scholar, EBSCO, and others.</p> Editorial 2021-05-17T09:55:29-06:00 Martha Cleveland-Innes Sawsen Lakhal <p>More than one year after the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, we release a delayed Issue #3, Fall 2020, of CJLT. As an education journal, we were not immune to the effects of the pandemic. Most authors and reviewers work in some sector of education, as does the editorial team of the journal. The demand on education to continue near-normal delivery, while keeping students safe, created innovative responses alongside unskillful use of varying types of distance delivery and technology-enabled learning. The illumination of the complexity, challenges, and, for some, the benefits of such alternative education delivery methods is unprecedented. Insight, debate, and critique on the topics of remote teaching and the more sophisticated online design and delivery is more common than it was a year ago.</p> 2021-05-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Martha Cleveland-Innes; Sawsen Lakhal MOOCs and Open Education in the Global South: A Review 2021-03-23T11:08:00-06:00 Christopher Devers <p>This timely and eye-opening book from Ke Zhang, Curt Bonk, Tom Reeves, and Tom Reynolds, <em>MOOCs and Open Education in the Global South</em> (Zhang, Bonk, Reeves, &amp; Reynolds, 2020), provides 28 chapters that describe the challenges, successes, and opportunities of MOOCs and open education from the perspective of 68 authors from 47 countries in the Global South ( Before those chapters, a detailed preface from the four editors lays out the journey that the world community took to get to this point in the metaphor of a wanderer who makes his or her path by pushing ahead and exploring the road in front. In addition, an insightful foreword is provided by Mimi Miyoung Lee from the University of Houston who had previously co-edited an award-winning book with Bonk, Reeves, and Reynolds; namely, <em>MOOCs and Open Education Around the World</em> (Bonk, Lee, Reeves, &amp; Reynolds, 2015). Thus, consider the current book Part 2 of what is likely to become a many act play in the world of MOOCs and open education. With the foreword and preface, there are 30 pieces in total (Note: the front matter is available for free from:</p> 2021-05-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Christopher Devers Boundary Crossing between Formal and Informal Learning Opportunities: A Pathway for Advancing e-Learning Sustainability 2021-03-03T12:53:11-07:00 Kathlyn Bradshaw Jennifer Lock Gale Parchoma <p>In this article, third generation cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) (Engeström, 2011) will be the means for analyzing tensions and contradictions between formal and informal learning within a MOOC design. This article builds on previous work (Bradshaw, Parchoma &amp; Lock, 2017) wherein cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) was used to establish formal and informal learning as activity systems. Formal and informal learning are considered in relation to designing learning for a MOOC environment.&nbsp; Findings from an&nbsp;<em>in situ&nbsp;</em>study specifically examining CHAT elements in the process of design are considered in a movement towards making visible what those tasked with designing courses normally do not see in relation to informal learning. Implications for practice are presented in a CHAT-Informed MOOC design model intended to augment typical approaches to instructional design. The outcome is an argument for CHAT-Informed MOOC design model can intentionally address both formal and informal opportunities for learning.</p> 2021-05-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kathlyn Bradshaw, Jennifer Lock Editorial Volume 46 Issue 2 2020-12-17T09:48:22-07:00 Sawsen Lakhal Martha Cleveland-Innes 2020-12-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Sawsen Lakhal, Martha Cleveland-Inness Book Review of Assessment Strategies for Online Learning: Engagement and Authenticity, 2018 2020-11-25T14:20:38-07:00 Michael Dabrowski <p>Book Review by Michael Dabrowski</p> <p><strong>Assessment strategies for online learning: Engagement and Authenticity, 2018.</strong> By Dianne Conrad and Jason Openo, Athabasca University Press 220 pages. doi:10.15215/aupress/9781771992329.01</p> 2020-12-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Michael Dabrowski Teaching with Sandbox Games: Minecraft, Game-Based Learning, and 21st Century Competencies 2021-01-26T12:58:27-07:00 Cristyne Hébert Jennifer Jenson <p>In this paper, we present the findings of a research study, working with 12 educators in a large urban school board in Ontario using Minecraft for 21<sup>st </sup>century competency development. We identify a number of pedagogical moves teachers made to support 21<sup>st </sup>century learning through communication and collaboration, both in the classroom and in the game world, and three approaches to play, directed/guided, scaffolded, and open, that represented a three tiers of critical thinking and creativity/innovation. We argue that while an open, exploratory sandbox game such as Minecraft can meaningfully aid students in the development of 21<sup>st </sup>century competencies, it is in fact teachers’ decisions around how the game will be used in the classroom that determine whether or not 21<sup>st </sup>century competency development is supported. </p> 2021-05-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Cristyne Hebert, Jennifer Jenson Editorial 2020-08-19T12:19:01-06:00 Martha Cleveland-Innes Sawsen Lakhal 2020-09-11T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Martha Cleveland-Innes, Sawsen Lakhal Education's Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic Reveals Online Education’s Three Enduring Challenges 2020-08-05T09:53:10-06:00 Jason Openo <p>Closed campuses, working remotely, and physical distancing have changed the way we work, teach, learn, shop, attend conferences, and interact with family and friends. But the Covid-19 pandemic has not changed what we know about creating high-end online education. Two decades of research has shown that online education often fails to fulfill its promise, and the emergency shift to remote instruction has, for many, justified their distrust and dislike of online learning. Low interactivity remains a widely recognized short-coming of current online offerings. Low interactivity results, in part, from many faculty not feeling comfortable being themselves online. The long-advocated for era of authentic assessments is needed now more than ever. Finally, greater support is needed for both underrepresented students and for faculty to move beyond basic online instruction to create a strong continuum of care between the teaching and learning environment and the student support infrastructure. For those who have been long-term champions of online education, it has never been more important to confront the three biggest challenges that continue to haunt online education – interactivity, authenticity, and support. Only by confronting these challenges squarely can instructors, educational developers, and their institutions take huge steps towards better online instruction in the midst of a pandemic and make widespread, high-quality online education permanently part of the “new normal.”</p> 2020-12-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jason Openo Serious Games in Higher Distance Education 2020-07-19T10:59:58-06:00 Ann Celestini <p>Games have been socially entrenched throughout history as a form of entertainment. Current rapidly changing technological advances have permitted an increasingly prominent means of utilizing these sources of entertainment in an instructional capacity for educational purposes. Serious gaming as a result, focuses on engaging learners in activities which are not solely developed for enjoyment purposes. Goal oriented pursuits based in either an authentic or fictitious scenario can be designed to improve a learner or players motor and cognitive abilities or knowledge (de Freitas &amp; Jarvis, 2006; Lamb et al., 2018; Protopsaltis et al., 2011). Serious gaming promotes intentional, active, and mobile learning that can be successfully used as a supplemental educational tool to facilitate a situated understanding of specific content (Admiral et al., 2011; Gee, 2005). This paper is a brief overview of game-based learning, or serious games, as an innovative instructional strategy in higher distance education.</p> 2021-05-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ann Celestini Institutional Perspectives on Faculty Development for Digital Education in Canada 2020-10-20T14:59:26-06:00 Charlene A. VanLeeuwen George Veletsianos Olga Belikov Nicole Johnson <p>As digital education at the post-secondary level continues to grow, robust professional development that prepares faculty to teach in online and blended settings is necessary. In this study we analyze open-ended comments from the Canadian Digital Learning Research Association’s annual survey of Canadian post-secondary institutions (2017-2019) to deepen our understanding of faculty training and support for digital education as articulated by higher education institutions. We find that 1) digital education orientation or on-boarding processes for faculty vary widely; 2) institutions employ an extensive array of professional development practices for digital education; 3) institutions report culture change, work security, and unclear expectations as challenges in providing digital education training and support; and 4) institutions articulate aspirations and hopes around professional development investments in order to build digital education capacity. These findings have significant implications for research and practice and we describe these in the article.</p> 2020-12-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Charlene A. VanLeeuwen, George Veletsianos, Olga Belikov, Nicole Johnson Teaching, learning, literacy in our high-risk high-tech world: A framework for becoming human, 2017. By J. P. Gee. Teachers College Press. 184 pages. ISBN 978-0-8077-5860-1 2020-07-30T09:33:50-06:00 Helen J. DeWaard <p>In this book Gee draws on years of study in literacy, learning, and gaming culture to reconceptualize a future for education that confronts current global issues of peace, sustainability, and the battle for human dignity. Gee takes a deeper dive into how human development impacts teaching, learning, and literacy in today’s complex, tech infused world. This book offers insights in light of current global pandemic contexts. Gee suggests that teaching, learning, literacy, and the use of technology should start from a place of goodwill, while acknowledging that education spans within, across, and beyond the boundaries of home and/or school-based contexts.</p> 2020-09-11T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Helen J. DeWaard Open Educational Resources in Canada 2020 2020-07-30T11:13:06-06:00 Rory McGreal <p class="PreformattedText"><span lang="EN-CA" style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman';">COVID 19 has had a wide impact on education internationally and specifically in Canada, with nearly all institutions now transitioning to online education, with many learning for the first time about Open Educational Resources (OER). Understanding what is happening with OER in the different regions of our country is one step in creating awareness and promoting national networks for sharing resources, serving to address local educational needs. Educators can assemble, adopt, adapt, design, and develop OER-based courses that can cost-effectively address the needs of Canadian students. This paper describes OER-related initiatives and implementations across Canada that can serve as examples to educators and administrators, who because of COVID 19, are offering online courses for the first time.</span></p> <p class="PreformattedText" style="text-align: justify; text-indent: 35.45pt; line-height: 200%;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;"> </span></p> 2020-09-11T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Rory McGreal Teachers' TPACK Professional Kowledge Mastering: The case of computer simulation integration in Cameroonian technical education in electronics programs 2021-02-09T06:33:57-07:00 Georges Modeste Dabove-Foueko Raquel Becerril Ortega <p>This contribution proposes a classification of the status of mastery of professional knowledge activated in the teaching of a course using computer simulation. The assessment of knowledge domains carried out is based on the TPACK categorization of (Mishra and Koehler, 2006) and involves 40 high school teachers in Cameroon. Analysis of the data collected using a Likert questionnaire revealed an epistemological configuration consisting of three dominant statuses of professional knowledge mastery among teachers. Class 1 refers to the mastery status composed mainly of teachers with an "insufficient" level. It includes knowledge of content (CK), content-related technology (TCK) and content-based pedagogical technology (TPCK). Class 2 refers to the status of mastery for which most teachers express a "satisfactory" level. It is limited only to content-related pedagogical knowledge (PCK). Finally, class 3 corresponds to the status of mastery for which the majority of teachers express an "expert" level. It includes pedagogical knowledge (PK), technological knowledge (TK) and technopedagogical knowledge (TPK). These results open up the prospect of a reflection on the actions to be taken to develop the professionalism of teachers through training.</p> 2021-05-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Georges Modeste DABOVE-FOUEKO, Raquel BECERRIL ORTEGA Oral Production Skills and Self-Regulation Processes: Exploring the contribution of the e-portfolio 2020-11-19T17:07:43-07:00 Maxime Paquet Thierry Karsenti <p>This article presents the results of an exploratory study that describes and analyzes the contribution of the e-portfolio in the use of the self-regulation process. The sample used was of female grade 9 high school students during oral production tasks. A content analysis of student self-assessment and individual interviews, as well as data from questionnaires suggest that the use of the portfolio, because it includes reflective activities, supports high school students by allowing them to verbalize the strategies used to determine their effectiveness. In addition, the portfolio contains pertinent information for strategic planning in subsequent oral production tasks.</p> 2020-12-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Maxime Paquet, Thierry Karsenti Editorial 2020-04-28T12:04:52-06:00 Martha Cleveland-Innes Sawsen Lakhal 2020-04-22T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Martha Cleveland-Innes, Sawsen Lakhal The Role of Video in the Flipped Language Classroom 2020-08-18T12:51:44-06:00 Angelika Verch Elke Nissen <p>Flipped classrooms have become a widespread form of teaching. Yet, there is no consensus on how to define flipped (language) learning. Several authors consider the use of videos that prepares in-class activities as an essential principle.</p> <p>The article presents a study which examined the actual roles of videos in a corpus of 52 descriptions by L2 teachers of flipped language class settings and using Willis’ 1983 framework.</p> <p>In the corpus videos played a central role in before-class activities; a large number of videos were used. The roles that videos played in before-class activities in the settings did not all correspond to Willis’ framework; those which did not fit corresponded to direct instruction. The definition of a flipped setting was found to be unclear, as in a quarter of the descriptions the criteria did not apply. Video was not found to be necessarily constitutive for flipped language classes.</p> 2021-05-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Angelika Verch, Elke Nissen Defining the Visual Complexity of Learning Management Systems Using Image Metrics and Subjective Ratings 2020-08-02T13:58:23-06:00 Brenda M. Stoesz Mehdi Niknam Jessica Sutton <p>Research has demonstrated that students’ learning outcomes and motivation to learn are influenced by the visual design of learning technologies (e.g., learning management systems or LMS). One aspect of LMS design that has not been thoroughly investigated is visual complexity. In two experiments, postsecondary students rated the visual complexity of images of LMS after exposure durations of 50-500 ms. Perceptions of complexity were positively correlated across timed conditions and working memory capacity was associated with complexity ratings. Low-level image metrics were also found to predict perceptions of the LMS complexity. Results demonstrate the importance of the visual complexity of learning technologies and suggest that additional research on the impact of LMS design on learning outcomes is warranted.</p> 2020-12-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Brenda M. Stoesz, Jessica Sutton, Mehdi Niknam Online Learning: Practices, Perceptions, and Technology 2020-07-30T14:46:59-06:00 Tess Miller Kendra MacLaren Han Xu <p>The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing online learning given its rapid growth combined with the necessity to reduce attrition in online classes by providing quality instruction. This study was contextualized using the three elements of the community of inquiry (CoI) framework. We surveyed 93 students currently registered in online classes about their online learning experiences, perceptions, technological delivery of their course. Findings revealed that the majority of online courses were asynchronous using Moodle. There was a statistically significant difference between the three CoI dimensions and level of education where graduate students had more favourable online learning experience as measured by the CoI survey.</p> 2020-09-11T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Tess Miller, Han Xu, Kendra MacLaren The Effects of One-to-One Laptop Program on Help-Seeking and Homework Completion 2020-07-21T14:19:33-06:00 Jérémie Bisaillon Stéphane Villeneuve Alain Stockless <p>Many students prefer to abandon rather than seek help during their homework. However, seeking support is recognized as an effective learning strategy to complete assignments. Technology-supported classroom could have a beneficial impact on this strategy and, therefore, on homework completion. This article aims to compare students from a one-to-one laptop program to others studying in a traditional classroom environment on their 1) help-seeking strategies and 2) homework completion frequency. Quantitative analyses tend to confirm the initial hypothesis. However, they reveal the necessity to sensitize students regarding the appropriate use of technological tools to ensure their beneficial impact on learning.</p> 2020-12-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jérémie Bisaillon, Stéphane Villeneuve, Alain Stockless Does the Association of Social Media Use with Problematic Internet Behaviours Predict Undergraduate Students Academic Procrastination? 2020-07-30T14:46:12-06:00 Kingsley Chinaza Nwosu O. I. Ikwuka Onyinyechi Mary Ugorji Gabriel Chidi Unachukwu <p>Researchers are of the view that students’ attachment to social media may lead to negative consequences such as postponement of their academic work. Yet how social media use is associated with academic procrastination of students is still underexplored. This study ascertained the pathways through which social media use predicted academic procrastination of undergraduate students. The sample size comprised 500 year one students of the Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Path analysis was employed to test the model fit of the hypothetical model and show the direction of relationships between the exogenous and endogenous variables. Results showed that the hypothesized model fits the sample data satisfactorily, and Internet addiction predicted academic procrastination more than any other variable. Social media use had no significant effect on academic procrastination but indirectly significantly predicted academic procrastination through internet addiction.</p> 2020-09-11T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Kingsley Chinaza Nwosu, O. I. Ikwuka, Onyinyechi Mary Ugorji, Gabriel Chidi Unachukwu