Critical Thinking in Asynchronous Online Discussions: A Systematic Review | La pensée critique dans les discussions asynchrones en ligne : examen systématique

Joshua DiPasquale, William Hunter


Enhancing critical thinking is a common goal of higher education. Designing and facilitating learning environments in which critical thinking may develop is a key responsibility for instructors. In this paper, we seek to inform future research and practice by investigating instructional strategies that could be used to promote critical and reflective thinking in asynchronous online discussions. Our literature review was qualitative and systematic, and focused specifically on strategies that were effective in fully-online higher education contexts. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize the findings and conclusions from the various studies into recurrent themes and sub-themes. The results of the analysis indicated that practitioners should employ a multi-step approach to facilitating critical thinking and reflection in asynchronous online discussions. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

Améliorer la pensée critique est un objectif courant de l’éducation supérieure. Concevoir et faciliter des environnements d’apprentissage dans lesquels la pensée critique peut se développer est une responsabilité importante pour les instructeurs. Dans cet article, nous cherchons à renseigner les études et les pratiques futures en examinant les stratégies didactiques qui pourraient être utilisées pour promouvoir une pensée critique et réfléchie dans les discussions asynchrones en ligne. Notre examen des publications a été qualitatif et systématique. Il a été particulièrement axé sur les stratégies qui étaient efficaces dans les contextes d’éducation supérieure entièrement en ligne. L’analyse thématique a servi à synthétiser les résultats et les conclusions des différentes études en thèmes et thèmes sous-jacents récurrents. Les résultats de l’analyse indiquent que les intervenants devraient se servir d’une approche en plusieurs étapes pour promouvoir la pensée critique et réfléchie dans les discussions asynchrones en ligne. Une discussion de ce que cela implique pour les recherches et la mise en pratique est incluse.


critical thinking, cognitive presence, online learning, asynchronous online discussions, higher education

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